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He also invented the binary numeral system and envisioned a universal calculus of reasoning (alphabet of human thought) by which arguments could be decided mechanically.Leibniz worked on assigning a specific number to each and every object in the world, as a prelude to an algebraic solution to all possible problems.Roger Schank (Stanford) defined conceptual dependency model for natural language understanding.
Earl Sacerdoti developed techniques of partial-order planning in his NOAH system, replacing the previous paradigm of search among state space descriptions.
He referred to Kurt Gödel's result of 1931: sufficiently powerful formal systems are either inconsistent or allow for formulating true theorems unprovable by any theorem-proving AI deriving all provable theorems from the axioms.
Since humans are able to "see" the truth of such theorems, machines were deemed inferior.
Terry Winograd's Ph D thesis (MIT) demonstrated the ability of computers to understand English sentences in a restricted world of children's blocks, in a coupling of his language understanding program, SHRDLU, with a robot arm that carried out instructions typed in English.
The Assembly Robotics Group at University of Edinburgh builds Freddy Robot, capable of using visual perception to locate and assemble models.
Subsequent work by Grosz, Bonnie Webber and Candace Sidner developed the notion of "centering", used in establishing focus of discourse and anaphoric references in Natural language processing.